I'm sure a translator's desk and space is as individual as the translators themselves, but to give people an idea of what kind of environment in which a professional translator works, here's what I work in.
Yes, sensei is terrible about clearing away clutter, and my desk and the area around it hardly has a flat space available that doesn't have something piled on top of it. But aside from that...
I work in a 2nd-bedroom converted to an office. That's not only good for concentration, it's also good for divvying up the apartment during IRS time.
My computer is a 2-year old I-Mac -- that type that's a half-globe that supports a small, 15-inch flat-screen LCD monitor. It hasn't taken well to the latest version of OSX, and I will probably have to change it out for something different in a year or less, but it gets the job done for now. I work on a Mac because traditionally the publishing industry works on Macs. But that doesn't mean that translators must work on Macs. For my first six or seven years, I worked on a PC and had no complaints from clients. But most files sent back and forth are in Microsoft Word, so if you are thinking of doing this professionally, get the program that the editors use.
Peripherals include an external hard drive for backups; an HP all-in-one printer/scanner/copy machine/fax machine; a digital camera; wireless keyboard and mouse; high-speed DSL line; and a label printer (I used to run envelopes through my printer, but the label printer is quicker and easier).
The computer sits in a computer armoire with lots of shelves for my stuff. It has two rolling keyboard shelves -- the lower one houses my keyboard and the upper one holds clutter that includes my Wordtank electronic dictionary and a magnifying glass for those tiny asides in the manga. The shelf just above that supports the computer and sitting right in front of it is a bookstand. There is no good bookstand for manga made yet. The one I have is an inexpensive plastic job sold at Staples. It has two small tabs that, when it is new, can actually hold a book open, but after a while the tabs retain the same amount of friction as ice on a hot frying pan, so now a rubber band holds the book open. (Before the rubber band, I tried butterfly clips, but the stand was too wide to hold the average manga at both ends.)
There is a top shelf that holds the previous volumes of the series that I am presently translating for reference. (It also holds some books on CD, the disks for my computer programs, a picture of my wife, some Gundam robot figures, etc.) The top of the armoire is given over to various toys and dust.
The office chair was bought about 1992 on sale at Price Club (which is now Costco). I tried a different office chair in the mid 1990s, but that one wore out after only a couple of years, so it was back to this one. The entire seat, armrests and back rocks back (I hate it when it's just the backrest that reclines). The backrest is not an all-the-way-up backrest, but I've never missed that top section.
On both sides of the armoire are two overstuffed bookshelves filled mainly with odd reference books that I never use (but someday might) such as the complete Shakespeare works; a guide to submarines and sub hunters (I was offered the translation on Silent Service, but the deal fell through before I could start); Imidas -- a Japanese yearly reference work that covers world events in all areas including politics, science, medicine, and most importantly, new words -- from several odd years, manga I've translated, and as-yet untranslated manga; etc.
To my immediate left is a piece of furniture that was supposed to be a printer stand, but since it has two handy shelves for all of my second-string dictionaries, it has become another bookshelf. There is another set of smaller shelves around its back corner that holds the English versions of the series I'm presently translating. But sitting on top is my pride and joy, a swiveling triangular dictionary stand for Nelson's and the Green Goddess. It was custom built and cost me several hundred dollars, and in full swivel mode, it's slightly too big for the printer-stand it's on, but it's one of the best purchases I've made considering how often I check those two dictionaries.
As for other details, there is a shelf behind me that is actually a wide armrest for a futon couch (covered with books, of course), and the old, useless office chair with old manga and DVDs piled on it. The doors to the armoire have corkboards that are filled with schedules, appointments, phone numbers, etc. I have a backup laptop computer for traveling or just in case the Mac ever goes on the fritz (I've had to use three or four times for that purpose before this I-Mac).
And when I run out of flat spaces (as I often do), there is always the floor...